汽车配件俄语-英语翻译大全(P)
俄语是联合国六个官方语言之一。以俄语做为母语的国家包括:俄罗斯、白俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、未得国际承认的德涅斯特河沿岸共和国、南奥塞梯、阿布哈兹等。俄国是中国的最大邻国,中俄贸易非常发达。俄罗斯驻华商务代表齐普拉科夫10月27日在2008东北亚发展论坛上表示,今年中俄贸易额预计将超过500亿美元。中国汽车配件对俄出口前景非常乐观,本站特意整理了常用汽车配件俄语与英语的翻译,也包括了俄语汽车工程方面的词汇。如转贴敬请注明出处:/Books/Book/15/3466/A

Observing angle 观测角Observing axis 观测轴Observing plane
观测平面odograph 记录仪Offset 偏置量OFFSET COLLISION 侧面碰撞oil control
油环oil control rail 刮油环oil fill plug 注油螺塞oil filter
机油滤清器oil filter assy. 机油滤清器总成oil gallery 油道oil pan
油底壳oil path, bypass valve 旁通阀油道oil pressure gauge 油压表oil
pressure gauge calibration 电压表电阻oil pressure relief 溢流压力oil
pressure sensor 机油压力传感器oil pressure switch 油压开关oil pump
机油泵oil pump & inlet assy. 机油泵与进油管总成oil pump assy.
油泵总成oil seal 油封oil soaked closing magnetic path model
油浸闭磁路式OK range 合适范围on-board diagnostic 车载诊断onboard
diagnostic device 车载诊断设备opacimeter 不透光式烟度计Open Flame
Sunshine Carbon-Arc Type 明焰日光碳弧灯型Opening roof 天窗Operation
conditions 运行状态Operational Limits 运行参数Ordinary-sized
普通型O-ring, seal O型油封Outer diameter 外径outer tube 外胎outlet
出油口outlet of combined pump 复合泵出油口outlet opening 出油口outlet
tube 出油管outlet valve 出油阀Outline Marker Lamps 示廓灯output shaft
输出轴overhead hoist 吊运装置overall dimensions 外形尺寸overall view
透视图Overhead valve 顶置气门overrunning clutch 单向啮合器P/S pump MTG
bracket 动力转向泵安装支架pad 衬块panel damper 仪表板风门Paper tape
recorder 纸带记录仪Paragraph 项park brake level 停车制动拉臂park brake
switch 手制动开关park lamp, left front 左前小灯park lamp, right front
右前小灯Parking Brake 驻车制动器parking brake cable 驻车制动拉线parking
brake lever 驻车制动操纵杆Parking Brake System 驻车刹车系统parking lamp
驻车灯parking switch 手制动开关Partial flow dilution 分流稀释particulate
matter 颗粒物parts of heating & air conditioning system
暖风系统部件Passenger Accommodation 乘坐装置passenger airbag
deactivation system 乘客气囊禁用系统Passenger capacity 乘车定员Passenger
Capacity and Maximum Loading Capacity 乘员定员及最大载重量passenger
compartment 乘客舱Passenger motor vehicle 乘用车辆passing beam
近光光束Pattern 样式pc overlay, gauges 仪表印刷电路板pc overlay,
tell-tales 指示灯印刷电路板PCV PCV 阀PCV and LTC system
发动机强制通风与低温怠速控制系统PCV exhaust tube PCV 阀排气管PCV filter
PCV 滤清器PCV valve & elbow PCV 阀与弯头Pelvic angle 骨盆角度pelvis
performance criterion 骨盆性能指标Penetration resistance test
抗穿透性试验performs stamping/embossment 打刚印/铸凸字permanent magnet
永久磁铁personnel 职工Phase delay time 相位延迟时间Phase delay time of a
data channel 数据通道的相位延迟时间photometric characteristics
光学特性pickup coil 点火信息传感器pickup position 感受位置pin 定位销pin
package, sector 扇形板定位销组件ping 爆声pinion 驱动齿轮,主动齿轮pinion
seal 主动齿轮油封pinion yoke 主动齿轮叉pintle hooks 铰链销吊钩pintle
valve 针阀pintle valve seat 针阀座pipe-front exhaust 前排气管piping
system 管系piston 活塞piston assy. 压差阀柱塞总成piston displacement
活塞总排量piston oil slot 活塞油槽piston pin 活塞销piston ring
活塞环piston ring gap clearance-compression 气环开口间隙piston ring gap
clearance-oil control 油环开口间隙piston ring groove height
活塞环槽高度piston ring side clearance 活塞环侧隙piston rod 挺杆piston
slide 压差阀活塞滑套piston spring 柱塞弹簧piston stroke 活塞行程piston
to bore clearance 活塞与缸套间隙pitman arm 转向摇臂pitman shaft
摇臂轴pivot assembly 枢轴planet carrier 行星架planet pinion
行星齿轮planet pinion shaft 行星轴planetary gear system
行星齿轮装置planetary gear assy. 行星减速器总成plate 盘plate, park brake
guide 停车制动导向板plug 堵plunger 液力挺柱柱塞plunger cap 挺杆座plunger
return spring 柱塞弹簧plural tanks 多燃料箱PM 颗粒物PNEUMATIC TIRES
气压轮胎pole trailer 长材拖车police vehicle 警车Position Lamp
位置灯position pin 定位销positive displacement pump 正置换型泵power
booster 助力器power brake 助力制动,动力刹车器power distribution center
动力分配中心power steer 动力转向机power steering 动力转向器power
steering control valve 动力转向控制阀power steering fluid
动力转向液power steering gear 动力转向器power steering principle view
动力转向原理示意图power steering pump with intergral reservoir
动力转向泵power steering pump without intergral reservoir
分体式动力转向泵power steering system 动力转向系Power Train
动力传动系power transformer substation 配电站power transmitting
力传递方向powertrain system 传动系统preceding quarter 上季度Preferential
handling 优惠管理Preferentially handled imported motor vehicle
符合优惠管理的进口机动车Preliminary inspection 预备检验Preliminary
Review 预审pre-delivery 发车前准备pre-silencer 前消声器pressure cap
压力水箱盖Pressure Container 耐压容器Pressure Containers
压力容器pressure difference valve piston 压差阀活塞pressure hose assy.
动力转向压力管总成pressure plate 压力板pressure plate spring
弹簧pressure rating 标点压力pressure restrict valve 限压阀pressure valve
压力阀primary wire connector 低压线连接器principal item
主要项目Procedure 规程projector 聚光灯propeller ahaft & wheel assembly
传动轴与车轮总成Propeller Shaft 传动轴Propeller shaft type
传动轴型proportioning device 比例装置proposal of the plant I layout
1号厂房工艺布置方案图protect panel 护板Protective system 防护系统proving
ground 试验场地provision 规定Pubic Symphysis Peak Force
耻骨结合点力峰值public institute 公立研究所pull in winding 吸拉线圈pull
rod 推杆pulley 皮带轮pulley, P/S pump 动力转向泵皮带轮pulley, power
steering pump 动力转向泵皮带轮pump assy. , power steering 动力转向泵pump
housing 壳体pump ring 定子pump roter 转子pump shaft 转向泵轴,油泵轴pump
shaft bearing 轴承pump shaft seal 油泵轴油封push bar 推杆push rod
挺杆pushin bumper 牌照板缓冲快

The airplane engine and propeller, often referred to as the aircraft
powerplant, work in combination to produce thrust. The powerplant
propels the airplane and drives the various systems that support the
operation of an airplane.

  • B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S
  • T – U – V – W Ppacking – набивка, уплотнение, упаковкаpacking strip –
    прокладочная полоска, уплотнительная лентаpad – прокладка, подушка,
    фрикционная накладка, набивкаpage – страницаpaint – краска,
    окрашиватьpaint brush – кистьpaint strip(per) – вещество для снятия
    краскиpaintwork – лакокрасочная поверхностьpair – параpan – чашка,
    лоток, поддон картера двигателяpanel – панель, пластинаpaper –
    бумагаpaper filter – бумажный фильтрparaffin – парафин, керосинparallel
  • параллельныйparallel connection – параллельное соединение /
    подключениеparameter – параметрparcel shelf – вещевая полкаpark –
    ставить автомобиль на стоянкуparking – стоянкаparking brake – стояночный
    тормозparking lamp, -light – подфарник, габарит, стояночный
    фонарьparking ticket – штраф за нарушение правил стоянкиparking pawl –
    стояночный стопор (в авт. коробке передач)part – часть, запчасть,
    детальpartially – частично, неполныйparticle – частица, крупинкаpass –
    проход, переход, пропустить, обгонятьpassage – канал, проход,
    переездpassenger – пассажирpassenger car – легковой автомобильpassenger
    seat – пассажирское сиденье (переднее)paste – паста, клей, активная
    масса аккумулятораpatch – накладка, место, пятноpath – путь, маршрут,
    трекpattern – образец, модель, калибрpawl – защёлка, собачка,
    предохранительPCV – positive crankcase ventilation – принудительная
    вентиляция картераPCV valve – клапан принудительной вентиляцииpeak –
    вершина, остриё, пик, максимумpedal – педальpedestal – подножие,
    основание, стойкаpeel – шелушение, отслаивание, сдирать, зачищатьpeg –
    штифт, палец, шплинт, гвоздьPEI – pointless electronic ignition –
    бесконтактная электронная система зажиганияpellet – шарикpendant pedal –
    подвесная педальpenetrate – проникать, пронизыватьpenetrating oil –
    пропиточное масло, вещество для удаления ржавчиныpentroof – двухскатная
    крышаperforate – пробить, просверлить, перфорироватьperforated plate –
    перфорированная пластинаperformance – производительность,
    характеристика, приёмистостьperiod – период, срокperiodically –
    периодически, регулярноperiphery – окружность, периферияperish –
    разрушатьсяpermanent – постоянный, неизменныйpermanent magnet –
    постоянный магнитpermissible – допустимыйperpendicular –
    перпендикулярperpendicularity – перпендикулярностьpetcock – топливный /
    спускной кранpetrol – бензинpetrol cap – лючек бензобакаpetrol gauge –
    указатель уровня топливаpetrol station – бензозаправочная
    станцияpetroleum – сырая нефтьpetroleum jelly – вазелин, петролатумphase
  • фаза, периодphasing – синхронизация, фазировкаphillips screw – винт с
    крестовой головкойphillips screwdriver – крестовая отвёрткаphoto diode –
    светодиодphotocell – фотоэлементpickup, pickup truck, pick-up –
    автомобиль типа “пикап”, принимать, собиратьpick-up coil – катушка
    датчика / приёмникаpick-up unit – датчик, приёмникpiece – деталь,
    частьpiezoelectric – пьезоэлектронныйpile – штабель, стопка, кипаpillar
  • стойка, подпорка, колоннаpilot – вспомогательный, дополнительный,
    управляющийpilot bearing – направляющий подшипникpilot jet – жиклёр
    холостого хода, пусковой жиклёрpilot lamp, -light – контрольная /
    сигнальная лампаpin – шейка, цапфа, палец, стерженьpin punch –
    выколотка, кернpinch – зажимать, защемлятьping – детонироватьpinging –
    детонацияpinion – шестерня, ведущая шестерня, сателлитpink –
    детонировать, розовыйpinking – детонацияpintle – игла, ось, шкворень,
    цапфаpintle (type) injector – штифтовая форсункаpipe – трубаpipe union –
    штуцер для трубыpipette – пипеткаpiston – поршеньpiston crown – днище /
    головка поршняpiston pin – поршневой палецpiston ring – поршневое
    кольцоpiston ring groove – поршневая канавка, канавка поршневого
    кольцаpiston skirt – юбка поршняpit – яма, углубление, выемка,
    гнездоpitch – шаг, шаг зацепления, наклонpitch angle – угол делительного
    конуса, угол развалаpitch of a screw – шаг резьбыpitching – раскачка,
    “галопирование”pitman arm – рулевая сошкаpits – заправочно-ремонтный
    пункт (в автогонках)pitting – питтинг, точечная коррозияpivot – шарнир,
    палец, ось вращения, вращаться, качатьсяpivot arm – рулевая сошка,
    поворотный рычагpivot shaft – ось, цапфа, шквореньplace – установить,
    смонтировать, местоplain washer – плоская шайба, шайбаplane – плоскость,
    выравниватьplanetary – планетарныйplanet(ary) carrier – водило
    планетарного ряда / сателлитов / планетарной передачиplanet(ary) gear –
    планетарная передачаplanet(ary) wheel – планетарная шестерня,
    сателитplastic – пластичный, пластмассовый, пластмассаplastic
    interleaving – пластмассовые межлистовые прокладкиplastigage –
    измеритель зазоров в подшипниках скольженияplate – пластина, плита,
    доска, покрыватьplated – покрытый слоем другого металлаplating –
    листовая обшивка, покрытие металломplatinum – платина PIplatinum-tipped
  • платиновый наконечникplay – зазор, качка, играplenum chamber – полость
    с повышенным давлением газаpliers – плоскогубцы, пассатижиplug – пробка,
    свеча, вилка, штекер, закрыватьplunger – плунжер, стопор, пуансон, шток,
    толкательplunger spill ports – отсечные отверстия плунжераply – слой,
    расслоениеply rating – класс прочности покрышкиplywood – фанераpneumatic
  • пневматическийpocket – карман, ниша, гнездоpoint – точка, пункт,
    кончик, вершинаpointed pliers – острогубцы, утконосыpointer – стрелка,
    указательpointless – бесконтактный, плоский, тупойpointless electronic
    ignition (PEI) – бесконтактная электронная система зажиганияpolarity –
    полярностьpole – полюсpolicy – способpolish – полировка,
    полироватьpollutant – загрязнение, примесьpollution – загрязнение,
    загрязнятьpolyurethane foam – пенополиуретанpool – отстойник,
    сборникpoor – слабый, бедный, недостаточныйpoor mixture – бедная
    смесьpop rivet – поп-заклёпкаpoppet valve – тарельчатый клапанporcelain
  • фарфорporous – пористый, губчатыйporous bronze bush – подшипник из
    пористой бронзыport – окно, отверстиеportable – портативный,
    переноснойportion – порция, частьposistor – позистор, температурный
    предохранительposition – положение, место, позиция, состояние,
    установить на местоpositive – положительный, плюсовой,
    принудительныйpositive crankcase ventilation – PCV – принудительная
    вентиляция картераpositive pole – положительная клемма, положительный
    полюсpost – стойка, столб, подпорка, полюсный штырьpotential –
    потенциал, напряжениеpotentiometer – потенциометр, переменное
    сопротивлениеpound (Ib) – фунт (453,6 г)powder – порошок, пыль, пудра,
    измельчатьpowdery – порошкообразныйpower – мощностьpower antenna –
    антенна с сервоприводомpower brakes – тормоз с усилителем
    торможенияpower door (lock system) – централизованное закрытие
    дверейpower drill – электродрельpower jet – жиклёр эконостата /
    обогатителяpower locks – замки с электроприводомpower loss – потеря /
    недостаток мощностиpower mirror – зеркало с электроприводомpower seat –
    сидение с электроприводомpower source – источник энергии /
    электропитанияpower steering – рулевое управление с усилителемpower
    stroke – рабочий ходpower sunroof – люк в крыше с электроприводомpower
    supply – источник питанияpower take-off – отбор мощностиpower train –
    трансмиссияpower transistor – мощный / выходной транзисторpower window –
    окно с электрическим стеклоподъёмникомpre – до-, пред-,
    предварительноpreamplifier – предварительный усилительprecatalyst –
    предварительный катализаторprecaution – предосторожность,
    предупреждениеprechamber – предкамера, форкамераprecision –
    точностьprecombustion chamber – предкамера, форкамераpre-delivery
    service – предпродажная подготовкаpredetermined – заранее заданный,
    предопределённыйpre-drive – перед поездкойpre-engage type starter –
    стартер с предварительным зацеплениемpreglow – предварительный
    накалpreheater – подогревательpreheater plug – запальная свечаpreheating
  • предварительный нагревpre-ignition – преждевременное зажиганиеpre-load
  • первоначальная нагрузка, предварительный натягpremium fuel –
    первосортное топливоpre-ride – перед поездкойpreselector – механизм
    предварительного выбора передачpreservative – предохранительное
    средствоpress – пресс, тиски, сжиматьpress fit – тугая / прессовая
    посадкаpressed steel wheel – стальное штампованное колесоpressure –
    давлениеpressure differential chamber – камера пониженного
    давленияpressure differential piston – поршень камеры пониженного
    давленияpressure plate – нажимной дискpressure regulating valve –
    клапан,регулирующий давлениеpressure regulator – регулятор
    давленияpressure relief valve – редукционный кран, предохранительный
    клапанpressure valve – нагнетательный клапанpressurize – создавать
    избыточное давление, нагнетать, герметизироватьprevent – предохранять,
    препятствоватьprimary – первичный, основной, главныйprimary Shoe –
    первичная тормозная колодкаprimary winding – первичная обмоткаprime –
    заправлять, грунтовать, прокачиватьprimer – грунтовкаpriming lever –
    рычаг ручной подкачкиpriming pump – заливочный / подкачивающий / ручной
    насосprinted circuit – печатная схемаprise, prize – рычаг, вскрывать /
    передвигать рычагомprobe – щуп, зонд, измерительная головкаprocedure –
    методика, порядок, технологический процессprocess – процесс, операция,
    производить, обрабатыватьproduce – вырабатывать, изготовлятьproduct –
    продукт, изделиеproduction – производствоprogram – программаprogression
  • прогрессия, продвижение, последовательностьprogressive –
    поступательный, постепенныйproject – выступать, выдаватьсяprojecting –
    наружный, выступающийprojection – выступ, зубpropeller – воздушный /
    гребной винт, пропеллерpropeller blade – лопасть гребного / воздушного
    винтаpropeller shaft – карданный валproper – правильный,
    собственныйproportion – пропорция, отношение, дозировкаproportioning
    valve – дозирующий клапан, ограничитель давления (в приводе
    тормоза)proprietary – частный, собственник, патентованное
    средствоpropshaft – карданный валpropulsion – тяговое усилие, тяга,
    движение вперёдprotective – защитный, предохранительныйprotector –
    протектор, предохранительное устройство, защитное приспособлениеproton –
    протонprotrude – выдаваться, торчатьprotrusion – выступ,
    высовываниеproximity – близостьpry – рычаг, вага, действовать
    рычагомpull – тяга, тянутьpull-down unit – устройство автоматического
    приоткрывания воздушной заслонкиpull-in coil – втягивающая катушкаpuller
  • съёмникpulley – шкив, блок, тальpullrod – тягаpulsate – вибрировать,
    колебатьсяpulsation – вибрация, смена давленияpulsation damper – демпфер
    пульсаций, выравниватель потокаpulse – импульс, толчок,
    пульсироватьpulse width – длительность импульсаpulser coil – импульсная
    капушкаpump – насос, качатьpump impeller – крыльчатка насосаpump jet –
    распылитель ускорительного насосаpunch – пуансон, керн, бородок,
    пробойникpuncture – прокол шины, пробойpurchase – закупка,
    приобретениеpurge – продувка, очисткаpurple – пурпурныйpurpose – цель,
    назначениеpush – толкать, нажимать, давитьpush button – нажимная
    кнопкаpush fit – плотная посадкаpushrod – толкатель, стержень,
    штангаputty – замазка, шпаклёвка

Reciprocating engines活塞发动机

Most small airplanes are designed with reciprocating engines. The name
is derived from the back-and-forth, or reciprocating, movement of the
pistons. It is this motion that produces the mechanical energy needed to
accomplish work. Two common means of classifying reciprocating engines
are:

  1. by cylinder arrangement with respect to the crankshaft—radial,
    in-line, v-type or opposed, or
  2. by the method of cooling—liquid or air-cooled.

Radial engines were widely used during World War II, and many are still
in service today. With these engines, a row or rows of cylinders are
arranged in a circular pattern around the crankcase. The main advantage
of a radial engine is the favorable power-to-weight ratio.

In-line engines have a comparatively small frontal area, but their
power-to-weight ratios are relatively low. In addition, the rearmost
cylinders of an air-cooled, in-line engine receive very little cooling
air, so these engines are normally limited to four or six cylinders.

V-type engines provide more horsepower than in-line engines and still
retain a small frontal area. Further improvements in engine design led
to the development of the horizontally-opposed engine.

Opposed-type engines are the most popular reciprocating engines used on
small airplanes. These engines always have an even number of cylinders,
since a cylinder on one side of the crankcase “opposes” a cylinder on
the other side. The majority of these engines are air cooled and usually
are mounted in a horizontal position when installed on fixed-wing
airplanes. Opposed-type engines have high power-to-weight ratios because
they have a comparatively small, lightweight crankcase. In addition, the
compact cylinder arrangement reduces the engine´s frontal area and
allows a streamlined installation that minimizes aerodynamic drag.

The main parts of a reciprocating engine include the cylinders,
crankcase, and accessory housing. The intake/exhaust valves, spark
plugs, and pistons are located in the cylinders. The crankshaft and
connecting rods are located in the crankcase. The magnetos are normally
located on the engine accessory housing.

汽车配件 1

Figure 1: Main components of a reciprocating engine.

The basic principle for reciprocating engines involves the conversion of
chemical energy, in the form of fuel, into mechanical energy. This
occurs within the cylinders of the engine through a process known as the
four-stroke operating cycle. These strokes are called intake,
compression, power, and exhaust.

汽车配件 2

Figure 2: The arrows in this illustration indicate the direction of
motion of the crankshaft and piston during the four-stroke cycle.

The intake stroke begins as the piston starts its downward travel. When
this happens, the intake valve opens and the fuel/air mixture is drawn
into the cylinder.
The compression stroke begins when the intake valve closes and the
piston starts moving back to the top of the cylinder. This phase of the
cycle is used to obtain a much greater power output from the fuel/air
mixture once it is ignited.
The power stroke begins when the fuel/air mixture is ignited. This
causes a tremendous pressure increase in the cylinder, and forces the
piston downward away from the cylinder head, creating the power that
turns the crankshaft.
The exhaust stroke is used to purge the cylinder of burned gases. It
begins when the exhaust valve opens and the piston starts to move toward
the cylinder head once again.
Even when the engine is operated at a fairly low speed, the four-stroke
cycle takes place several hundred times each minute. In a four-cylinder
engine, each cylinder operates on a different stroke. Continuous
rotation of a crankshaft is maintained by the precise timing of the
power strokes in each cylinder. Continuous operation of the engine
depends on the simultaneous function of auxiliary systems, including the
induction, ignition, fuel, oil, cooling, and exhaust systems.

Propeller

The propeller is a rotating airfoil, subject to induced drag, stalls,
and other aerodynamic principles that apply to any airfoil. It provides
the necessary thrust to pull, or in some cases push, the airplane
through the air.

The engine power is used to rotate the propeller, which in turn
generates thrust very similar to the manner in which a wing produces
lift. The amount of thrust produced depends on the shape of the airfoil,
the angle of attack of the propeller blade, and the r.p.m. of the
engine. The propeller itself is twisted so the blade angle changes from
hub to tip. The greatest angle of incidence, or the highest pitch, is at
the hub while the smallest pitch is at the tip.

汽车配件 3

Figure 3: Changes in propeller blade angle from hub to tip.

The reason for the twist is to produce uniform lift from the hub to the
tip. As the blade rotates, there is a difference in the actual speed of
the various portions of the blade. The tip of the blade travels faster
than that part near the hub, because the tip travels a greater distance
than the hub in the same length of time.

Changing the angle of incidence (pitch) from the hub to the tip to
correspond with the speed produces uniform lift throughout the length of
the blade. If the propeller blade was designed with the same angle of
incidence throughout its entire length, it would be inefficient, because
as airspeed increases in flight, the portion near the hub would have a
negative angle of attack while the blade tip would be stalled.

汽车配件 4

Figure 4: Relationship of travel distance and speed of various portions
of propeller blade.

Small airplanes are equipped with either one of two types of propellers.
One is the fixed-pitch, and the other is the controllable-pitch.

Fixed-pitch propeller

The pitch of this propeller is set by the manufacturer, and cannot be
changed. With this type of propeller, the best efficiency is achieved
only at a given combination of airspeed and r.p.m. There are two types
of fixed-pitch propellers—the climb propeller and the cruise propeller.
Whether the airplane has a climb or cruise propeller installed depends
upon its intended use:

The climb propeller has a lower pitch, therefore less drag. Less drag
results in higher r.p.m. and more horsepower capability, which increases
performance during takeoffs and climbs, but decreases performance during
cruising flight.
The cruise propeller has a higher pitch, therefore more drag. More drag
results in lower r.p.m. and less horsepower capability, which decreases
performance during takeoffs and climbs, but increases efficiency during
cruising flight.
The propeller is usually mounted on a shaft, which may be an extension
of the engine crankshaft. In this case, the r.p.m. of the propeller
would be the same as the crankshaft r.p.m. On some engines, the
propeller is mounted on a shaft geared to the engine crankshaft. In this
type, the r.p.m. of the propeller is different than that of the engine.
In a fixed-pitch propeller, the tachometer is the indicator of engine
power.

汽车配件 5

Figure 5: Engine r.p.m. is indicated on the tachometer.

A tachometer is calibrated in hundreds of r.p.m., and gives a direct
indication of the engine and propeller r.p.m. The instrument is
color-coded, with a green arc denoting the maximum continuous operating
r.p.m.

Some tachometers have additional markings to reflect engine and/or
propeller limitations. Therefore, the manufacturer´s recommendations
should be used as a reference to clarify any misunderstanding of
tachometer markings.

The revolutions per minute are regulated by the throttle, which controls
the fuel/air flow to the engine.

At a given altitude, the higher the tachometer reading, the higher the
power output of the engine.

When operating altitude increases, the tachometer may not show correct
power output of the engine. For example, 2,300 r.p.m. at 5,000 feet
produce less horsepower than 2,300 r.p.m. at sea level. The reason for
this is that power output depends on air density. Air density decreases
as altitude increases. Therefore, a decrease in air density (higher
density altitude) decreases the power output of the engine. As altitude
changes, the position of the throttle must be changed to maintain the
same r.p.m. As altitude is increased, the throttle must be opened
further to indicate the same r.p.m. as at a lower altitude.

Adjustable-pitch propeller

Although some older adjustable-pitch propellers could only be adjusted
on the ground, most modern adjustable-pitch propellers are designed so
that you can change the propeller pitch in flight. The first
adjustable-pitch propeller systems provided only two pitch settings – a
low-pitch setting and a high-pitch setting. Today, however, nearly all
adjustable-pitch propeller systems are capable of a range of pitch
settings.

A constant-speed propeller is the most common type of adjustable-pitch
propeller. The main advantage of a constant-speed propeller is that it
converts a high percentage of brake horsepower (BHP) into thrust
horsepower (THP) over a wide range of r.p.m. and airspeed combinations.
A constant-speed propeller is more efficient than other propellers
because it allows selection of the most efficient engine r.p.m. for the
given conditions.

An airplane with a constant-speed propeller has two controls—the
throttle and the propeller control. The throttle controls power output,
and the propeller control regulates engine r.p.m. and, in turn,
propeller r.p.m., which is registered on the tachometer.

Once a specific r.p.m. is selected, a governor automatically adjusts the
propeller blade angle as necessary to maintain the selected r.p.m. For
example, after setting the desired r.p.m. during cruising flight, an
increase in airspeed or decrease in propeller load will cause the
propeller blade angle to increase as necessary to maintain the selected
r.p.m. A reduction in airspeed or increase in propeller load will cause
the propeller blade angle to decrease.

The range of possible blade angles for a constant-speed propeller is the
propeller´s constant-speed range and is defined by the high and low
pitch stops. As long as the propeller blade angle is within the
constant-speed range and not against either pitch stop, a constant
engine r.p.m. will be maintained. However, once the propeller blades
contact a pitch stop, the engine r.p.m. will increase or decrease as
appropriate, with changes in airspeed and propeller load. For example,
once a specific r.p.m. has been selected, if aircraft speed decreases
enough to rotate the propeller blades until they contact the low pitch
stop, any further decrease in airspeed will cause engine r.p.m. to
decrease the same way as if a fixed-pitch propeller were installed. The
same holds true when an airplane equipped with a constant-speed
propeller accelerates to a faster airspeed. As the aircraft accelerates,
the propeller blade angle increases to maintain the selected r.p.m.
until the high pitch stop is reached. Once this occurs, the blade angle
cannot increase any further and engine r.p.m. increases.

On airplanes that are equipped with a constant-speed propeller, power
output is controlled by the throttle and indicated by a manifold
pressure gauge. The gauge measures the absolute pressure of the fuel/air
mixture inside the intake manifold and is more correctly a measure of
manifold absolute pressure (MAP). At a constant r.p.m. and altitude, the
amount of power produced is directly related to the fuel/air flow being
delivered to the combustion chamber. As you increase the throttle
setting, more fuel and air is flowing to the engine; therefore, MAP
increases. When the engine is not running, the manifold pressure gauge
indicates ambient air pressure (i.e., 29.92 in. Hg). When the engine is
started, the manifold pressure indication will decrease to a value less
than ambient pressure (i.e., idle at 12 in. Hg). Correspondingly, engine
failure or power loss is indicated on the manifold gauge as an increase
in manifold pressure to a value corresponding to the ambient air
pressure at the altitude where the failure occurred.

汽车配件 6

Figure 6: Engine power output is indicated on the manifold pressure
gauge.

The manifold pressure gauge is color-coded to indicate the engine´s
operating range. The face of the manifold pressure gauge contains a
green arc to show the normal operating range, and a red radial line to
indicate the upper limit of manifold pressure.

For any given r.p.m., there is a manifold pressure that should not be
exceeded. If manifold pressure is excessive for a given r.p.m., the
pressure within the cylinders could be exceeded, thus placing undue
stress on the cylinders. If repeated too frequently, this stress could
weaken the cylinder components, and eventually cause engine failure.

You can avoid conditions that could overstress the cylinders by being
constantly aware of the r.p.m., especially when increasing the manifold
pressure.

Conform to the manufacturer´s recommendations for power settings of a
particular engine so as to maintain the proper relationship between
manifold pressure and r.p.m.

When both manifold pressure and r.p.m. need to be changed, avoid engine
overstress by making power adjustments in the proper order:

When power settings are being decreased, reduce manifold pressure before
reducing r.p.m. If r.p.m. is reduced before manifold pressure, manifold
pressure will automatically increase and possibly exceed the
manufacturer´s tolerances.
When power settings are being increased, reverse the order—increase
r.p.m. first, then manifold pressure.
To prevent damage to radial engines, operating time at maximum r.p.m.
and manifold pressure must be held to a minimum, and operation at
maximum r.p.m. and low manifold pressure must be avoided.
Under normal operating conditions, the most severe wear, fatigue, and
damage to high performance reciprocating engines occurs at high r.p.m.
and low manifold pressure.

Excursion: Aerodynamics of the propeller

Induction systems

The induction system brings in air from the outside, mixes it with fuel,
and delivers the fuel/air mixture to the cylinder where combustion
occurs. Outside air enters the induction system through an intake port
on the front of the engine cowling. This port normally contains an air
filter that inhibits the entry of dust and other foreign objects. Since
the filter may occasionally become clogged, an alternate source of air
must be available. Usually, the alternate air comes from inside the
engine cowling, where it bypasses a clogged air filter. Some alternate
air sources function automatically, while others operate manually.

Two types of induction systems are commonly used in small airplane
engines:

the carburetor system, which mixes the fuel and air in the carburetor
before this mixture enters the intake manifold, and
the fuel injection system, which mixes the fuel and air just before
entry into each cylinder.

Carburetor systems

Carburetors are classified as either float-type or pressure-type.
Pressure carburetors are usually not found on small airplanes. The basic
difference between a pressure carburetor and a float-type is the
pressure carburetor delivers fuel under pressure by a fuel pump.

In the operation of the float-type carburetor system, the outside air
first flows through an air filter, usually located at an air intake in
the front part of the engine cowling. This filtered air flows into the
carburetor and through a venturi, a narrow throat in the carburetor.

When the air flows through the venturi, a low-pressure area is created,
which forces the fuel to flow through a main fuel jet located at the
throat. The fuel then flows into the airstream, where it is mixed with
the flowing air.

汽车配件 7

Figure 7: Float-type carburetor.

The fuel/air mixture is then drawn through the intake manifold and into
the combustion chambers, where it is ignited. The “float-type
carburetor” acquires its name from a float, which rests on fuel within
the float chamber. A needle attached to the float opens and closes an
opening at the bottom of the carburetor bowl.

This meters the correct amount of fuel into the carburetor, depending
upon the position of the float, which is controlled by the level of fuel
in the float chamber. When the level of the fuel forces the float to
rise, the needle valve closes the fuel opening and shuts off the fuel
flow to the carburetor. The needle valve opens again when the engine
requires additional fuel.

The flow of the fuel/air mixture to the combustion chambers is regulated
by the throttle valve, which is controlled by the throttle in the
cockpit.

Mixture control

Carburetors are normally calibrated at sea-level pressure, where the
correct fuel-to-air mixture ratio is established with the mixture
control set in the FULL RICH position. However, as altitude increases,
the density of air entering the carburetor decreases, while the density
of the fuel remains the same. This creates a progressively richer
mixture, which can result in engine roughness and an appreciable loss of
power. The roughness normally is due to spark plug fouling from
excessive carbon buildup on the plugs. Carbon buildup occurs because the
excessively rich mixture lowers the temperature inside the cylinder,
inhibiting complete combustion of the fuel. This condition may occur
during the pretakeoff runup at high-elevation airports and during climbs
or cruise flight at high altitudes. To maintain the correct fuel/air
mixture, you must lean the mixture using the mixture control. Leaning
the mixture decreases fuel flow, which compensates for the decreased air
density at high altitude.

During a descent from high altitude, the opposite is true. The mixture
must be enriched, or it may become too lean. An overly lean mixture
causes detonation, which may result in rough engine operation,
overheating, and a loss of power. The best way to maintain the proper
mixture is to monitor the engine temperature and enrichen the mixture as
needed.

Proper mixture control and better fuel economy for fuel-injected engines
can be achieved by use of an exhaust gas temperature gauge. Since the
process of adjusting the mixture can vary from one airplane to another,
it is important to refer to the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) or the
Pilot´s Operating Handbook (POH) to determine the specific procedures
for a given airplane.

Carburetor icing

One disadvantage of the float-type carburetor is its icing tendency.
Carburetor ice occurs due to the effect of fuel vaporization and the
decrease in air pressure in the venturi, which causes a sharp
temperature drop in the carburetor. If water vapor in the air condenses
when the carburetor temperature is at or below freezing, ice may form on
internal surfaces of the carburetor, including the throttle valve.

汽车配件 8

Figure 8: The formation of carburetor ice may reduce or block fuel/air
flow to the engine.

The reduced air pressure, as well as the vaporization of fuel,
contributes to the temperature decrease in the carburetor. Ice generally
forms in the vicinity of the throttle valve and in the venturi throat.
This restricts the flow of the fuel/air mixture and reduces power. If
enough ice builds up, the engine may cease to operate.

汽车配件,Carburetor ice is most likely to occur when temperatures are below 70°F
(21°C) and the relative humidity is above 80 percent. However, due to
the sudden cooling that takes place in the carburetor, icing can occur
even with temperatures as high as 100°F (38°C) and humidity as low as 50
percent. This temperature drop can be as much as 60 to 70°F.

Therefore, at an outside air temperature of 100°F, a temperature drop of
70°F results in an air temperature in the carburetor of 30°F.

汽车配件 9

Figure 9: Although carburetor ice is most likely to form when the
temperature and humidity are in ranges indicated by this chart,
carburetor ice is possible under conditions not depicted.

The first indication of carburetor icing in an airplane with a
fixed-pitch propeller is a decrease in engine r.p.m., which may be
followed by engine roughness. In an airplane with a constant-speed
propeller, carburetor icing usually is indicated by a decrease in
manifold pressure, but no reduction in r.p.m. Propeller pitch is
automatically adjusted to compensate for loss of power. Thus, a constant
r.p.m. is maintained. Although carburetor ice can occur during any phase
of flight, it is particularly dangerous when using reduced power during
a descent. Under certain conditions, carburetor ice could build
unnoticed until you try to add power. To combat the effects of
carburetor ice, engines with float-type carburetors employ a carburetor
heat system.

Carburetor heat

Carburetor heat is an anti-icing system that preheats the air before it
reaches the carburetor. Carburetor heat is intended to keep the fuel/air
mixture above the freezing temperature to prevent the formation of
carburetor ice. Carburetor heat can be used to melt ice that has already
formed in the carburetor provided that the accumulation is not too
great. The emphasis, however, is on using carburetor heat as a
preventative measure.

The carburetor heat should be checked during the engine runup. When
using carburetor heat, follow the manufacturer´s recommendations.

When conditions are conducive to carburetor icing during flight,
periodic checks should be made to detect its presence. If detected, full
carburetor heat should be applied immediately, and it should be left in
the ON position until you are certain that all the ice has been removed.
If ice is present, applying partial heat or leaving heat on for an
insufficient time might aggravate the situation. In extreme cases of
carburetor icing, even after the ice has been removed, full carburetor
heat should be used to prevent further ice formation. A carburetor
temperature gauge, if installed, is very useful in determining when to
use carburetor heat.

Whenever the throttle is closed during flight, the engine cools rapidly
and vaporization of the fuel is less complete than if the engine is
warm. Also, in this condition, the engine is more susceptible to
carburetor icing. Therefore, if you suspect carburetor icing conditions
and anticipate closed-throttle operation, adjust the carburetor heat to
the full ON position before closing the throttle, and leave it on during
the closed-throttle operation. The heat will aid in vaporizing the fuel,
and help prevent the formation of carburetor ice. Periodically, open the
throttle smoothly for a few seconds to keep the engine warm, otherwise
the carburetor heater may not provide enough heat to prevent icing.

The use of carburetor heat causes a decrease in engine power, sometimes
up to 15 percent, because the heated air is less dense than the outside
air that had been entering the engine. This enriches the mixture. When
ice is present in an airplane with a fixed-pitch propeller and
carburetor heat is being used, there is a decrease in r.p.m., followed
by a gradual increase in r.p.m. as the ice melts. The engine also should
run more smoothly after the ice has been removed. If ice is not present,
the r.p.m. will decrease, then remain constant. When carburetor heat is
used on an airplane with a constant-speed propeller, and ice is present,
a decrease in the manifold pressure will be noticed, followed by a
gradual increase. If carburetor icing is not present, the gradual
increase in manifold pressure will not be apparent until the carburetor
heat is turned off.

It is imperative that a pilot recognizes carburetor ice when it forms
during flight. In addition, a loss of power, altitude, and/or airspeed
will occur. These symptoms may sometimes be accompanied by vibration or
engine roughness. Once a power loss is noticed, immediate action should
be taken to eliminate ice already formed in the carburetor, and to
prevent further ice formation. This is accomplished by applying full
carburetor heat, which will cause a further reduction in power, and
possibly engine roughness as melted ice goes through the engine. These
symptoms may last from 30 seconds to several minutes, depending on the
severity of the icing. During this period, the pilot must resist the
temptation to decrease the carburetor heat usage. Carburetor heat must
remain in the full-hot position until normal power returns.

Since the use of carburetor heat tends to reduce the output of the
engine and also to increase the operating temperature, carburetor heat
should not be used when full power is required (as during takeoff) or
during normal engine operation, except to check for the presence or to
remove carburetor ice.

Carburetor air temperature gauge

Some airplanes are equipped with a carburetor air temperature gauge,
which is useful in detecting potential icing conditions. Usually, the
face of the gauge is calibrated in degrees Celsius (°C), with a yellow
arc indicating the carburetor air temperatures where icing may occur.
This yellow arc typically ranges between -15°C and +5°C (5°F and 41°F).
If the air temperature and moisture content of the air are such that
carburetor icing is improbable, the engine can be operated with the
indicator in the yellow range with no adverse effects. However, if the
atmospheric conditions are conducive to carburetor icing, the indicator
must be kept outside the yellow arc by application of carburetor heat.

Certain carburetor air temperature gauges have a red radial, which
indicates the maximum permissible carburetor inlet air temperature
recommended by the engine manufacturer; also, a green arc may be
included to indicate the normal operating range.

Outside air temperature gauge

Most airplanes also are equipped with an outside air temperature (OAT)
gauge calibrated in both degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit. It provides the
outside or ambient air temperature for calculating true airspeed, and
also is useful in detecting potential icing conditions.

Fuel injection systems

In a fuel injection system, the fuel is injected either directly into
the cylinders, or just ahead of the intake valve. A fuel injection
system is considered to be less susceptible to icing than the carburetor
system. Impact icing on the air intake, however, is a possibility in
either system. Impact icing occurs when ice forms on the exterior of the
airplane, and blocks openings such as the air intake for the injection
system.

The air intake for the fuel injection system is similar to that used in
the carburetor system, with an alternate air source located within the
engine cowling. This source is used if the external air source is
obstructed. The alternate air source is usually operated automatically,
with a backup manual system that can be used if the automatic feature
malfunctions.

A fuel injection system usually incorporates these basic components—an
engine-driven fuel pump, a fuel/air control unit, fuel manifold (fuel
distributor), discharge nozzles, an auxiliary fuel pump, and fuel
pressure/flow indicators.

汽车配件 10

Figure 10: Fuel injection system.

The auxiliary fuel pump provides fuel under pressure to the fuel/air
control unit for engine starting and/or emergency use. After starting,
the engine-driven fuel pump provides fuel under pressure from the fuel
tank to the fuel/air control unit. This control unit, which essentially
replaces the carburetor, meters fuel based on the mixture control
setting, and sends it to the fuel manifold valve at a rate controlled by
the throttle. After reaching the fuel manifold valve, the fuel is
distributed to the individual fuel discharge nozzles. The discharge
nozzles, which are located in each cylinder head, inject the fuel/air
mixture directly into each cylinder intake port.

Some of the advantages of fuel injection are:

  • Reduction in evaporative icing.
  • Better fuel flow.
  • Faster throttle response.
  • Precise control of mixture.
  • Better fuel distribution.
  • Easier cold weather starts.

Disadvantages usually include:

  • Difficulty in starting a hot engine.
  • Vapor locks during ground operations on hot days.
  • Problems associated with restarting an engine that quits because of
    fuel starvation.
    Superchargers and turbosuperchargers涡轮增压器

To increase an engine´s horsepower, manufacturers have developed
supercharger and turbosupercharger systems that compress the intake air
to increase its density. Airplanes with these systems have a manifold
pressure gauge, which displays manifold absolute pressure (MAP) within
the engine´s intake manifold.

On a standard day at sea level with the engine shut down, the manifold
pressure gauge will indicate the ambient absolute air pressure of 29.92
in. Hg. Because atmospheric pressure decreases approximately 1 in. Hg
per 1,000 feet of altitude increase, the manifold pressure gauge will
indicate approximately 24.92 in. Hg at an airport that is 5,000 feet
above sea level with standard day conditions.

As a normally aspirated aircraft climbs, it eventually reaches an
altitude where the MAP is insufficient for a normal climb. That altitude
limit is the aircraft´s service ceiling, and it is directly affected by
the engine´s ability to produce power. If the induction air entering the
engine is pressurized, or boosted, by either a supercharger or a
turbosupercharger, the aircraft´s service ceiling can be increased. With
these systems, you can fly at higher altitudes with the advantage of
higher true airspeeds and the increased ability to circumnavigate
adverse weather.


看到这里有些累了吧,没事,先休息一下,后面还有一部分呢,一会再看!不想休息?那就打开下面的链接接着看吧o

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